The development of a network of specialist colonial officials in the 20th century not only reflected the ‘Ethical' Dutch concerns with Indonesian welfare but marked a major administrative change. Unlike the dualist Binnenlandsch Bestuur, the new services were multi-racial Indonesians could and increasingly did rise to administrative positions where they were in charge of European subordinates.
Doel, H.W. van den, ‘Practical agricultural education in the Netherlands East Indies: the transfer of agricultural knowledge to the indigenous population of Java, 1875-1920', Journal of the Japan-Netherlands Institute 6 (1996), pp. 78-94.
Moon, Suzanne, ‘Empirical knowledge, scientific authority, and native development: the controversy over sugar/rice ecology in the Netherlands East Indies, 1905-1914', Environment and History 10, no.1 (Feb 2004), pp. 59-81.