Fluency in Indonesian, by province, 1990

Further reading

Alisjahbana, Sutan Takdir, ‘Language policy, language engineering and literacy in Indonesia and Malaysia', in Fishman, Joshua A., ed., Advances in language planning (The Hague, Mouton, 1974), pp. 391-416.

Anwar, Khaidir, Indonesian: the development and use of a national language. [Yogyakarta], Gadjah Mada University Press, 1980.

Masinambow, E. K. M., and Paul Haenen, eds, Bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa daerah. Jakarta : Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2002.

Sneddon, James N., The Indonesian language: its history and role in modern society. Sydney: UNSW Press, 2003.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1990 - 1990