The Dutch had claimed formal sovereignty over the rulers of Klungkung, Karangasem, Badung and Buleleng in 1841, after guaranteeing them full internal autonomy. When the raja of Buleleng objected to Dutch intervention in internal affairs despite this guarantee, the colonial authorities went to war, conquering Buleleng in 1846 and Jembrana in 1853. Until 1882, the Dutch assistent-resident in neighbouring Banjuwangi on Java monitored Dutch interests on the island.
Anak Agung Gde Agung, Ide, Bali in the 19th century. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor, 1991.
Creese, Helen, ‘New kingdoms, old concerns: Balinese identities in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries', in Anthony Reid, ed. The last stand of Asian autonomies: responses to modernity in the diverse states of Southeast Asia and Korea, 1750-1900. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1997, pp. 345-366.
Geertz, Clifford, Negara: the theatre state in nineteenth-century Bali. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980.
Kraan, Alfons van der, ‘Bali: 1848', Indonesia Circle 62 (Mar. 1994) 1-57.