Widespread warfare in southern Bali in 1883 led to the defeat and dismemberment of Mengwi, and the disorder encouraged the Dutch to prepare for annexation of the whole island. Karangasem came under Dutch rule in 1895 as a result of the conquest of Lombok in 1894, while Gianyar invited Dutch annexation to avoid destruction at the hands of its enemies.
Creese, Helen, et al., eds, Seabad Puputan Badung: perspektif Belanda dan Bali. Denpasar: Pustaka Larasan, 2006.
Farram, Steve, ‘The Dutch conquest of Bali: the conspiracy theory revisited', Indonesia and the Malay World 26, no.76 (Nov. 1998), pp. 207-223.