Biogeographical boundaries in Indonesia


Great apes and elephants are amongst the most distinctive elements of the ecology of the former Laurasia, while marsupials and eucalypts are characteristic of Gondwana.  The present day distribution of flora and fauna in Indonesia only broadly reflects the geological origin of the different islands, because there have been many opportunities for species to move naturally across geological boundaries.

Further reading

Daws, Gavan, and Marty Fujita, Archipelago: the islands of Indonesia: from the nineteenth-century discoveries of Alfred Russel Wallace to the fate of forests and reefs in the twenty-first century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Groves, Colin P., ‘The origin of the mammalian fauna of Sulawesi (Celebes)', Zeitschrift für Saugetierkunde 41 (1976), 201-216.

Groves, Colin, Ancestors for the pigs: taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus Sus. Canberra: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Technical Bulletin no 3, 1981.

Mazza, P., ‘Understanding elephant dwarfism on Sicily (Italy) and Flores (Indonesia): still a long way to go’, Human Evolution 21, nos.1-4 (Jan-Dec 2006), pp. 155-161.

Whitten, Anthony J., Muslimin Mustafa and Gregory S. Henderson, The ecology of Sulawesi. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1987.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)