Borneo in the 15th and 16th centuries

Further reading

Healey, Christopher J., ‘Tribes and states in pre-colonial Borneo: structural contradictions and the generation of piracy’, Social Analysis no.18 (Dec 1985), pp. 3-39.

Heidhues, Mary Somers, ‘The first two sultans of Pontianak', Archipel 56 (1998), pp. 273-294.

King, Victor T., The peoples of Borneo. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.

Smith, F. Andrew, ‘Pre-17th century states in Borneo: Tanjungpura is still a mystery, Lawei less so’, in Michael Leigh, ed., Borneo 2000: environment, conservation and land: proceedings of the Sixth Biennial Borneo Research Conference. Kuching, Sarawak: University of Malaysia Sarawak, 2000, vol. 4, 149-178.


Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1400 - 1600