The Tanah Boemboe states in southeast Borneo had been ceded by Banjarmasin to the Dutch as directly ruled territories in 1817 but were then restored to their original rulers who ruled as agents of the colonial government. They were small states, with populations ranging from six hundred to two thousand.
Meliau and Boenoet in western Borneo were annexed as directly ruled states in 1909, the eight small states of Pinoh in 1913, and much of Semitau in 1916.
Ismail, Muhamad Gade, ‘Trade and state power: Sambas (West Borneo) in the early nineteenth century', in G.J. Schutte, ed., State and trade in the Indonesian archipelago Leiden: KITLV Press,
1994, pp. 141-149.
King, Victor T., The peoples of Borneo. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.
Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)
Bangkalaan, Banjarmasin, Batang-Loeparlanden, Batoe, Boeloengan, Boenoet, Borneo, Boven-Kapoeas, Brunei, Dayak, Embaoe-Streek, Empanang-Gebied, Goel, Goenoeng Taboer, Kalimantan, Koeboe, Koesan, Koetei, Kota Waringin, Labuan, Landak, Litjin, Matan, Meliau, Mempawah, Menoen, North Borneo Company, Pagaten, Pasir, Pinoh, Poelau Laut, Pontianak, Sabamban, Sambalioeng, Sambas, Sampanahan, Sanggau, Sarawak, Seboekoe, Sebroeang-Streek, Sekadau, Semitau, Simpang, Sintang, Soekadana, Sulu, Tajan, Tanah Boemboe, Tidoengsche Landen, Tjantoeng, Tjongal