Military dual function (dwifungsi) in 1984: provincial governors


The number of provinces headed by (generally retired) military officers varied during the New Order period but tended to decrease with the passage of time. A survey of ministerial posts in the Indonesian government in 1981 showed that eleven out of twenty-four were held by serving or former officers. Also shown on the map is the ethnicity of provincial governors where they were not from the province they governed.

Further reading

Apa dan siapa: sejumlah orang Indonesia 1985-1986. Jakarta: Grafitipers, 1986.

Apa dan siapa: sejumlah orang Indonesia 1983-1984. Jakarta: Grafitipers, 1984.

Gayo, Iwan, ed., Buku pintar Jakarta: Upaya Warga Negara, 1994.

MacDougall, John, ‘Patterns of military control in the Indonesian higher central bureaucracy', Indonesia 33 (1982), pp. 89-121.

MacFarling, Ian, The dual function of the Indonesian Armed Forces: military politics in Indonesia. Canberra: Australian Defence Studies Centre, 1996.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1984 - 1984