Participation in education by girls, 1935


The age category against which school enrolments is compared here includes all children who could walk, and thus a sizeable number who were not yet of school age. In all regions, the number of ‘school-age' females was considerably less than the number of ‘school age' males, because females were classified as adults when they were old enough to marry (i.e. at 14-15), whereas males were adults when they could work (i.e. at 15-16). Females were 46.5% of this ‘school-age' population in the colony.

Further reading

Blackburn, Susan, and Sharon Bessell, ‘Marriageable age: political debates on early marriage in twentieth-century Indonesia’, Indonesia 63 (1997), pp. 107-141.

Coté, Joost, ‘Raden Ajeng Kartini: the experience and politics of colonial education', in Joyce Goodman and Jane Martin, eds., Gender, colonialism and education: the politics of experiences. London: Woburn Press, 2002, pp. 199-224.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1935 - 1935