The age category against which school enrolments is compared here includes all children who could walk, and thus a sizeable number who were not yet of school age. In all regions, the number of ‘school-age' females was considerably less than the number of ‘school age' males, because females were classified as adults when they were old enough to marry (i.e. at 14-15), whereas males were adults when they could work (i.e. at 15-16). Females were 46.5% of this ‘school-age' population in the colony.
Blackburn, Susan, and Sharon Bessell, ‘Marriageable age: political debates on early marriage in twentieth-century Indonesia’, Indonesia 63 (1997), pp. 107-141.
Coté, Joost, ‘Raden Ajeng Kartini: the experience and politics of colonial education', in Joyce Goodman and Jane Martin, eds., Gender, colonialism and education: the politics of experiences. London: Woburn Press, 2002, pp. 199-224.
Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)
Atjeh, Bali & Lombok, Bangka, Bengkoelen, Borneo, Celebes, Central Java, Djambi, East Coast of Sumatra, East Java, Java, Kalimantan, Lampongsche Districten, Maluku, Manado, Moluccas, Molukken, New Guinea, Palembang, Papua, Riouw, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Surakarta, Tapanoeli, Timor, West Java, West Sumatra, Westerafdeeling van Borneo, Yogyakarta, Zuider- en Oosterafdeeling van Borneo