Pilgrims to Mekka as a proportion of the indigenous population of each gewest, 1927

Further reading

Fealy, Greg, and  Hooker, Virginia, eds, Voices of Islam in Southeast Asia: a contemporary sourcebook.  Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006.

Laffan, Michael Francis, Islamic nationhood and colonial Indonesia: the umma below the winds. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1927 - 1927