Speculative map of the borders of a dismantled Indonesia


Although separatist ideas were briefly expressed in many regions, there was no general expression of hostility to the idea of Indonesia, and no sense of a coalition between forces wishing its destruction.

Further reading

Cribb, Robert, ‘Independence for Java? New national projects for an old empire' in Grayson Lloyd and Shannon Smith, eds, Indonesia today: challenges of history. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2001, pp. 298-307.

Cribb, Robert, ‘Not the next Yugoslavia: prospects for the disintegration of Indonesia’, Australian Journal of International Affairs 53 no. 2 (1999), pp. 169-178.

Crouch, Harold, 'Indonesia: democratization and the threat of disintegration', Southeast Asian Affairs (2000), pp. 115-133.

Ferrazzi, Gabriele, 'Avoiding disintegration: decentralization options for Indonesia', in: Andi Faisal Bakti, ed., Good governance and conflict resolution in Indonesia: from authoritarian government to civil society. Jakarta: Logos, 2000.

Reid, Anthony, 'Indonesia's post-revolutionary aversion to federalism', in: He Baogang, Brian Galligan and Takashi Inoguchi, eds., Federalism in Asia. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2007, pp. 144-164.

Year span

1999 - 1999