Singhasari's empire outside Java


Although earlier Javanese kingdoms had raided parts of Sumatra and even Cambodia and the Tonkin delta, Kertanegara's kingdom was the first to establish a more permanent hegemony outside Java, with its conquest of Jambi-Melayu in 1275 and with its dominance of Madura, Bali and central Java. Kertanegara's influence very likely extended also to the southern coast of Borneo but, as with all these early kingdoms, Kertanegara's dominance rested more on the glittering attractiveness of his court and on periodic intimidatory expeditions than on direct administrative control.

Further reading

Hall, D.G.E., A History of South-East Asia. New York: St. Martin's Press, 4th ed., 1981.

Munoz, Paul Michel, Early kingdoms of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay Peninsula.  Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2006.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1200 - 1300