Majapahit's empire on Java


As the pace of commerce quickened in the Indonesian archipelago and population increased, Java's rice became an increasingly valuable resource. Majapahit's trade passed mainly through the market cities of Bubat and Canggu, where tolls were also collected. The capital of Majapahit, Trowulan, seems to have been reserved for more political and ceremonial purposes.

Further reading

Ambary, Hasan Muarif, ‘Trowulan and remains of the Majapahit Kingdom’, in Monuments and sites: Indonesia; Monumen dan situs Indonesia. Bandung: International Council on Monuments and Sites, 1999, pp. 31-36.

Colless, Brian E., ‘Majaphit revisited: external evidence on the geography and ethnology of East Java in the Majapahit period’, Journal of the Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society 48, pt.2 ( 1975), pp. 124-161.

Hall, D.G.E., A History of South-East Asia. New York: St. Martin's Press, 4th ed., 1981.

Hall, Kenneth R., ‘Personal status and ritualized exchange in Majapahit Java’, Archipel no.59 (2000), pp. 51-96.

Hall, Kenneth R., ‘Ritual networks and royal power in Majapahit Java', Archipel 52 (1996), pp. 95-118.

Munoz, Paul Michel, Early kingdoms of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay Peninsula  Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2006.

Noorduyn, J., ‘Majapahit in the fifteenth century’, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 134, nos.2/3 ( 1978), pp. 207-274.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1300 - 1400