Railways played a major role in integrating Java, economically and socially, from the late 19th century. The first private railway was laid in central Java in 1873, and the government line from Surabaya to Pasuruan was built in 1879. By 1894 it was possible to travel by rail between the two largest cities of the colony, Batavia and Surabaya. A major part of the railway system in Java was run by private companies.
Herdenking van het vijftigjarig bestaan der Staatsspoor- en tramwegen in N.I. 1875=6 April=1925. Weltevreden: Landsdrukkerij , 1925.