Each kongsi was autonomous, with its own systems of justice, education and administration. Rivalry between the kongsi was strong, especially as the gold deposits began to give out in the middle of the 19th century.
Heidhues, Mary Somers, Golddiggers, farmers, and traders in the ‘Chinese Districts' of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 2003.
Jackson, James C., Chinese in the West Borneo goldfields: a study in cultural geography. Hull: University of Hull, 1970.
Schaank, S.H., Schetskaart van de zeven Chineesche kongsi's in het rijk Sambas (westerafdeeling van Borneo) (Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 35, 1825)