Regular services of the Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij (KPM), 1891


The KPM was a government-backed private steamer company.

Further reading

Campo, J.N.F.M. à, Engines of empire: steamshipping and state formation in colonial Indonesia. Hilversum: Verloren, 2002.

Campo, J. à, ‘Steam navigation and state formation', in Robert Cribb, ed., The late colonial state in Indonesia: political and economic foundations of the Netherlands Indies,1880-1942. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1994, pp. 11-29.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1891 - 1891