Malay peninsula, 19th century


In 1819, the island of Singapore was part of the domain of the Sultan of Johor, who was subordinate to the Dutch and whose capital was on the southerly island of Lingga. In order to establish a legal basis for annexing the island, Raffles gave British recognition to the sultan's elder brother, Tengku Hussein, who had been kept out of power by Bugis influence in 1812. With the 1824 Anglo-Dutch treaty, the Sultanate of Johor thus became divided into separate Dutch- and British-sponsored states. Tengku Hussein, however, had no territory to rule, because Johor and Pahang were governed by nominal vassals called the Temenggong and Bendahara respectively. In 1852, the British persuaded Hussein's son, Ali, to renounce his claim to the throne in exchange for a small territory in northwest Johor.

Further reading

Cowan, C.D.,  Nineteenth-century Malaya: the origins of British political control.  London: Oxford University Press, 1961.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1819 - 1900