Ingleson, John, Road to exile: the Indonesian nationalist movement, 1927-1934. Singapore: Heinemann, 1979.
Kahin, Audrey R., ‘The 1927 communist uprising in Sumatra: a reappraisal', Indonesia 62 (Oct 1996), pp. 19-36.
Legge, J.D., Sukarno: A political biography. New York: Praeger, 1972.
Nagazumi, Akira, The dawn of Indonesian nationalism: the early years of the Budi Utomo, 1908-1918. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies, 1972.
O'Malley, W.J., ‘Second thoughts on Indonesian nationalism', in Indonesia: Australian perspectives. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1980, pp. 601-613.
Shiraishi, Takashi, An age in motion: popular radicalism in Java 1912-1926, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990.
Tsuchiya, Kenji, Democracy and leadership: the rise of the Taman Siswa movement in Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1988.
Van Niel, Robert, The Emergence of the modern Indonesian elite. The Hague: W. van Hoeve, 1970.