National parks, 1997


Independent Indonesia inherited a scattering of mainly small nature reserves from the Dutch colonial administration, but little was done to promote nature conservation until the early 1980s, when several national parks were declared.  Since that time, Indonesia has developed a system of parks and reserves covering over two million hectares of forest, swamp, plain and reef.  The legal status of many reserves, however, remains uncertain, and relatively few are patrolled well enough to prevent poaching and encroachment by agriculture.

Further reading

Collins, N. Mark, Jeffrey A. Sayer, and Timothy C. Whitmore, eds, The conservation atlas of tropical forests: Asia and the Pacific. London: Macmillan, 1991

MacKinnon, John, and Kathy MacKinnon, Review of the protected areas system in the Indo‑Malayan realm. Gland and Cambridge: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1986.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1990 - 2000