These categories included Indonesian groups settled away from their homelands. Small communities of indigenous Christians in Gorontalo and Bacan (Labuha) were also governed under this system.
Ceperkovic, Helen, ‘The diary of the Kapitan Melayu', in Kathryn Robinson and Mukhlis Paeni, eds., Living through histories: culture, history and social life in South Sulawesi. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, 1998, pp. 55-66.
Clarence-Smith, William Gervase, ‘The economic role of the Arab community in Maluku, 1816 to 1940', Indonesia and the Malay World 26, no 74 (Mar. 1998), pp. 32-49.