Opium consumption and registered opium users, 1932


In 1894, the system of selling opium through private traders was replaced by a state opium monopoly, the Opiumregie, which imported and refined raw opium and sold it to registered users through government shops. Opium use was often seen as a primarily Chinese problem, but in Java a majority of consumers were indigenous.

Further reading

Chandra, Siddharth, ‘What the numbers really tell us about the decline of the Opium Regie' Indonesia 70 (Oct. 2000), pp. 101-123.

Trocki, Carl A., Opium, empire and the global political economy: a study of the Asian opium trade, 1750-1950. London: Routledge, 1999.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1932 - 1932