In 1894, the system of selling opium through private traders was replaced by a state opium monopoly, the Opiumregie, which imported and refined raw opium and sold it to registered users through government shops. Opium use was often seen as a primarily Chinese problem, but in Java a majority of consumers were indigenous.
Chandra, Siddharth, ‘What the numbers really tell us about the decline of the Opium Regie' Indonesia 70 (Oct. 2000), pp. 101-123.
Trocki, Carl A., Opium, empire and the global political economy: a study of the Asian opium trade, 1750-1950. London: Routledge, 1999.
Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)
Atjeh, Bali & Lombok, Bangka, Bengkoelen, Billiton, Borneo, Celebes, Central Java, Djambi, East Coast of Sumatra, East Java, Java, Kalimantan, Lampongsche Districten, Maluku, Manado, Moluccas, Molukken, New Guinea, Palembang, Papua, Riouw, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Surakarta, Tapanoeli, Timor, West Java, West Sumatra, Westerafdeeling van Borneo, Yogyakarta, Zuider- en Oosterafdeeling van Borneo