Kawi and Pallawa inscriptions, 4th-12th centuries


Kawi texts have been found widely in eastern and central Java; the map here shows only two of the earliest inscriptions.

Further reading

Casparis, J.G. de, Indonesian Palaeography: a history of writing in Indonesia from the beginnings to C. A.D. 1500. Leiden: Brill, 1975.

Gallop, Annabel Teh, with Bernard Arps, Golden letters: writing traditions of Indonesia.  London: British Library, 1991.

Holle, K.F., Tabel van Oud- en Nieuw-Indische Alphabetten:  bijdrage tot de palaeographie van Nederlandsch-IndiĆ«.  Batavia & The Hague: Bruining/Nijhoff, 1882.

Kumar, Ann, and John H. McGlynn, eds, Illuminations: the writing traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation; New York and Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1996.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

400 - 400