Portuguese forts and posts in Indonesia, 16th and 17th centuries

Further reading

Abdurachman, Paramita R., ‘In search of spices: Portuguese settlements on Indonesian shores’, India Quarterly 2, no.2 (Jan 1974), pp. 113-133.

Borschberg, Peter, ‘Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch plans to construct a fort in the Straits of Singapore, ca. 1584-1625’, Archipel no.65 (2003), pp. 55-88.

Boxer, C.R., The Portuguese seaborne empire, 1415-1825. London: Hutchinson, 1969.

Boxer, Charles Ralph, ‘Portuguese and Spanish projects for the conquest of Southeast Asia, 1580-1600’, in Alijah Gordon, ed., The propagation of Islam in the Indonesian-Malay Archipelago. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Sociological Research Institute, 2001, pp. 157-179.

Sousa, Ivo Carneiro de, and Richard Z. Leirissa, eds., Indonesia-Portugal: five hundred years of historical relationship. Lisbon: Portuguese Centre for the Study of Southeast Asia (CEPESA), 2001.

Winius, George D., Studies on Portuguese Asia 1495-1689. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1500 - 1700