Distribution of modern Indic scripts, prior to the impact of Western printing technology


None of these scripts is now in general use, but all are preserved to some extent as a valued element of local traditional cultures. Especially since the introduction of regional autonomy, local scripts have appeared on street names and other public signs, but the level of literacy in tthose scripts remains low.

Further reading

Casparis, J.G. de, Indonesian Palaeography: a history of writing in Indonesia from the beginnings to C. A.D. 1500. Leiden: Brill, 1975.

Gallop, Annabel Teh, with Bernard Arps, Golden letters: writing traditions of Indonesia. London: British Library, 1991.

Holle, K.F., Tabel van Oud- en Nieuw-Indische Alphabetten:  bijdrage tot de palaeographie van Nederlandsch-Indië.  Batavia & The Hague: Bruining/Nijhoff, 1882.

Jaspan, M.A., Folk literature of South Sumatra: Redjang ka‑ga‑nga texts. Canberra: Australian National University, 1964.

Kumar, Ann, and John H. McGlynn, eds., Illuminations: the writing traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation; New York and Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1996.

Noorduyn, J., 'Variation in the Bugis/Makasarese script', Bijdragen ot de Taal‑, Land‑ en Volkenkunde 149 no 3 (1993), pp. 533‑570.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)