Southern Sulawesi, ca 1500

Further reading

Baker, Brett, ‘South Sulawesi in 1544: a Portuguese letter', Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 39 no. 1 (2005), pp. 61-85

Bulbeck, David and Ian Caldwell, ‘'Oryza sativa’and the origins of kingdoms in South Sulawesi, Indonesia: evidence from rice husk phytoliths’, Indonesia and the Malay World 36, no.104 (Mar 2008), pp. 1-20.

Bulbeck, David, Monique Paqua and Adrian Di Lello, ‘Culture history of the Toalean of South Sulawesi, Indonesia’, Asian Perspectives 39, no.1-2 (Spr-Fall 2000), pp. 71-108.

Bulbeck, F. David, and Bagyo Prasetyo, ‘Two millennia of socio-cultural development in Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia’, World Archaeology 32, no.1 (Jun 2000), pp. 121-137.

Caldwell, Ian, and Wayne A. Bougas, ‘The early history of Binamu and Bangkala, South Sulawesi’, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 160, no.4 (2004), pp. 456-510.

Caldwell, I.A. and M. Nur, ‘Three locally-made bronzes from South Sulawesi: possible evidence of cultural transfer from Java about AD 1000’, Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 39, no.1 (2005), pp. 23-34.

Cummings, William, A chain of kings: the Makassarese chronicles of Gowa and Talloq. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2007.

Cummings, William, Making blood white: historical transformations in early modern Makassar.  Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2002.


Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1500 - 1500