Political entities known in the archipelago, ca A.D. 250


With the exception of Barousai/Pu-lo, the states shown on this map are known only from Chinese sources. Reconstructing the indigenous names of these polities is made difficult both by the likely inaccuracies of transcription into Chinese script at the time, and by the fact that the pronunciation of Chinese has changed considerably since these early centuries. Barousai, or Barus, was described by the Greek geographer Ptolemy.

Further reading

Cœdès, George, The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1975.

Munoz, Paul Michel, Early kingdoms of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay Peninsula  Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2006.

Wheatley, Paul, The Golden Khersonese: studies in the historical geography of the Malay Peninsula before A.D. 1500. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 1961.

Wolters, O.W., Early Indonesian commerce: a study of the origins of Srivijaya. Ithaca. N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1974.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

200 - 400