States and courts in the archipelago, ca A.D. 450


By this time, the polities of the archipelago were becoming more prominent in Chinese records. Still, however, very few Chinese visited the region and few local archaeological sites have been discovered to shed more light on early political structures.

Further reading

Ardika, I Wayan, ‘Early evidence of Indian contact with Bali’, in Pierre-Yves Manguin, ed., Southeast Asian archaeology 1994: proceedings of the 5th international conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, Paris, 24th-28th October 1994. Hull: Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Hull, 1998, vol.1, pp. 139-145.

Cœdès, George,  The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1975.

Hall, D.G.E., A History of South-East Asia. New York: St. Martin's Press, 4th ed.,1981.

‘The Kutei inscriptions in Borneo’, in Tineke Hellwig and Eric Tagliacozzo, eds., The Indonesia reader: history, culture, politics. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2009, pp. 17-19.

McKinnon, E. Edwards, ‘Buddhism and the pre-Islamic archaeology of Kutei in the Mahakam Valley of East Kalimantan’, in Nora A. Taylor, ed., Studies in Southeast Asian art: essays in honor of Stanley J. O'Connor. Ithaca, N.Y.: Southeast Asia Program Publications, 2000, pp. 217-240.

Munoz, Paul Michel, Early kingdoms of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2006.

Noorduyn, J., and H. Th. Verstappen, ‘Purnavarman's river-works near Tugu’, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 128, no.2-3 (1972), pp. 298-307.

Wheatley, Paul, The Golden Khersonese: studies in the historical geography of the Malay Peninsula before A.D. 1500. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 1961.

Wolters, O.W., Early Indonesian commerce: a study of the origins of Srivijaya. Ithaca. N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1974.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

450 - 450