States and courts in the archipelago, ca A.D. 550


We cannot be certain of the extent to which Chinese record-keepers applied the same name to successive states in similar locations, or the extent to which they may have re-named long-established kingdoms from time to time.

Further reading

Cœdès, George, The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1975.

Hall, D.G.E., A History of South-East Asia. New York: St. Martin's Press, 4th ed., 1981.

McKinnon, E. Edwards, Hasan Djafar, and M.P. Soeroso, ‘Tarumanagara? A note on discoveries at Batujaya and Cibuaya, West Java’, in Pierre-Yves Manguin, ed., Southeast Asian archaeology 1994: proceedings of the 5th international conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, Paris, 24th-28th October 1994. Hull: Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Hull, 1998, vol.1, pp. 147-159.

Munoz, Paul Michel, Early kingdoms of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay Peninsula  Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2006.

Wheatley, Paul, The Golden Khersonese: studies in the historical geography of the Malay Peninsula before A.D. 1500. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 1961.

Wolters, O.W., Early Indonesian commerce: a study of the origins of Srivijaya. Ithaca. N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1974.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

500 - 600