Most of the Republic's civilian leaders let themselves be captured in first hours of the Dutch attack on Yogyakarta, but the army commander, Sudirman, who was ill with tuberculosis, fled to the countryside to lead guerrilla resistance to the Dutch.
Said, Salim, Genesis of power: general Sudirman and the Indonesian military in politics, 1945-49. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1991.
Sundhaussen, Ulf, The Road to Power: Indonesian Military Politics, 1945-1967. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1982.