Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, first half of 18th century

Further reading

Andaya, Barbara Watson, To live as brothers: southeast Sumatra in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993.

Bastin, John, The British in West Sumatra (1685-1825): a selection of documents. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 1965.

Colombijn, Freek, ‘The volatile state in Southeast Asia: evidence from Sumatra, 1600-1800', Journal of Asian Studies 62, no.2 (May 2003), pp. 497-529.

Kathirithamby-Wells, J., ‘Siak and its changing strategies for survival: c.1700-1870', in Anthony Reid, ed., The last stand of Asian autonomies: responses to modernity in the diverse states of Southeast Asia and Korea, 1750-1900. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1997, pp. 217-243.

Vos, Reinout, Gentle Janus, merchant prince: the VOC and the tightrope of diplomacy in the Malay world, 1740-1800. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1993.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1700 - 1750