Along the mountain range which runs the length of Sumatra were many communities who were only distantly subject, if at all, to the coastal powers which the Dutch conquered. In the hinterland of Palembang, several mountain districts were regarded by the Dutch as independent statelets for some time after the annexation of the low-lands. The Rejang district, thus, was included in Dutch territory only in 1858, Lebong in 1861 and Pasemah in 1866. The tiny district of XII Kota in West Sumatra was not formally annexed until 1899.
Dobbin, Christine, Islamic revivalism in a changing peasant economy: Central Sumatra, 1764-1847. London: Curzon, 1983.
Locher-Scholten, Elsbeth, Sumatran sultanate and colonial state: Jambi and the rise of Dutch imperialism, 1830-1907. Ithaca NY: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 2003.
Woelders, M.O., Het Sultanaat Palembang, 1811-1825. 's-Gravenhage, M. Nijhoff, 1975.
Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)
Aceh, Alas, Asahan, Bangka, Barus, Bataks, Batubara, Belitung, Bengkulu, Deli, Gayo, Indragiri, Jambi, Lampung, Langkat, Lebong, Melaka, Minangkabau, Padang, Palembang, Pasemah, Rejang, Riau, Serdang, Siak, Singkil, Sumatra, XII Kota