Languages of Sumatra


This map does not show the impact of recent migrations on language distribution.

Further reading

Jaspan, M.A., Folk literature of South Sumatra: Redjang ka‑ga‑nga texts. Canberra: Australian National University, 1964.

Tuuk, H.N. van der, A grammar of Toba Batak. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1971.

Wurm, S.A., and Shiro Hattori, eds, Language atlas of the Pacific area, part 2: Japan area, Taiwan (Formosa, Philippines, mainland and insular Southeast Asia. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities, 1983.

Asher, R.E., and Christopher Moseley, eds, Atlas of the world's languages. London: Routledge, 2007.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)