Provinces and military regions, 1955-1959


Close ties between civilian and military leaders in the Outer Islands had contributed to the mutinies of 1956 and the subsequent rebellions. From 1957 to 1959, therefore, the government began a programme of dividing the military and civilian jurisdictions in the Outer Islands into smaller units. Seven large Tentara and Territorium were replaced by sixteen military regions (KODAM), and the provinces of Central Sumatra, South Sumatra, South Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Nusatenggara Barat were split up. The provincial structure on the outer islands thus came to resemble that of the gewesten or residencies in the colonial era. In 1963, a seventeenth KODAM was created to cover West Irian (Irian Barat).

Further reading

Sundhaussen, Ulf, The road to power: Indonesian military politics, 1945-1967. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1955 - 1955