Major trade routes and export commodities in the Indonesian archipelago, ca 1500

Further reading

Bulbeck, David, Southeast Asian exports since the 14th century: cloves, pepper, coffee, and sugar. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1998.

Flecker, Michael, ‘A 9th-century Arab or Indian shipwreck in Indonesian waters’, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 29, no.2 (2000), pp. 199-217.

Hall, Kenneth R , Maritime trade and state development in early Southeast Asia.  Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985.

Lombard, Denys, Le carrefour javanais: essai d'histoire globale. Paris: Editions de l'École des hautes études en sciences sociales, 1990 3 vols.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1400 - 1500