Extensive transmigration to Irian Jaya began only in the 1980s and focussed on lowland regions. Much of the soil in the province proved to be unsuitable for intensive agriculture.
Aditjondro, George J., ‘Transmigration in Irian Jaya: issues, targets and alternative approaches', Prisma: Indonesian Journal of Social and Economic Affairs 41 (Sep. 1986), pp. 67-82.
Arndt, H. ‘Transmigration in Irian Jaya', in R.J. May, ed., Between two nations: the Indonesia-Papua New Guinea border and West Papua nationalism. Bathurst, N.S.W: Robert Brown, 1986), pp. 161-174.