States of western Borneo, ca 1800

Further reading

Heidhues, Mary Somers, ‘Chinese organizations in West Borneo and Bangka: kongsi and hu', in David Ownby and Mary Somers Heidhues, eds. 'Secret societies' reconsidered: perspectives on the social history of modern South China and Southeast Asia. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1993, pp. 68-88

Heidhues, Mary Somers, Golddiggers, farmers, and traders in the ‘Chinese Districts'  of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 2003.

Map number from Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (2000)


Year span

1800 - 1800